Why Ebola Virus Is in discussion?
Recently the World Health Organization (WHO) has announced that the outbreak of Ebola virus that spread in Guinea in February 2021 is now over.
- Its first wave Ebola outbreaks during 2013–2016 killed 11,300 people, mostly from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia.
- WHO also included Ebola in its list of “Ten Threats to Global Health in 2019”.
About Ebola Virus Disease (EVD):-
Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a serious, fatal disease in humans.
The virus spreads from wild animals to people and human-to-human transmission in human populations.
The Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976 in a village near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Animal to human transmission:-
Ebola infection is transmitted to human populations through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of those animals, such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope or porcupines.
These viruses are found in sick or dead state or found in rainforests.
Human to human transmission:-
Ebola is spread by direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with:
- It is spread through contact with the blood or body fluids of a person who is sick or has died of Ebola.
- Objects contaminated with such body fluids (eg:- blood, feces, vomit).
Ebola Virus Symptoms:-
It can occur suddenly and include: fever, fatigue, muscle aches, headache, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, symptoms related to impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases internal and external bleeding.
Ebola can be clinically difficult to distinguish from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis, but symptoms caused by infection with the Ebola virus can be confirmed using the following diagnostic methods:
- ELISA (antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)
- Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) a laboratory technique etc.
- The Ervebo vaccine has been shown to be effective in protecting people from the Ebola virus species of Zaire.
- In May 2020, the European Medicines Agency recommended marketing authorization of a 2-component vaccine named Zabdeno and Mvabea for individuals 1 year of age and older.
- Two monoclonal antibodies (Inmazeb and Ebanga) have been approved by the United States for the treatment of Zaire Ebola virus infection in adults and children.